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坦桑尼亚
发布时间:2006-02-10   文章来源:秘书处
 概 况
General

国 名:坦桑尼亚联合共和国
Official Name: The United Republic of Tanzania

国 旗:由黑、绿、蓝、黄四色构成。镶有黄边的黑色宽带斜贯旗地的右上角和旗杆一边的左下角,将旗地分隔成两个三角形,靠旗杆上方的三角形为绿色,旗面飘端下方的三角形为兰色。
National Flag: The flag consists of a black diagonal stripe running from the lower corner of the hoist to the upper corner of the fly and flanked by yellow stripes. The diagonal stripes separate two triangular areas: green at the Upper corner of the hoist and blue at the lower corner of the fly.

国 歌:《上帝保佑非洲》
Anthem: The Tanzanian National Anthem is a setting to new words of the widely known hymn Mungu Ibariki Afrika (God Bless Africa).

国 徽:坦桑尼亚的国徽是一个本国传统盾牌,盾面由四个部分组成:顶部为黄色背景上一支熊熊燃烧的火炬,火炬的下方是坦桑尼亚的国旗,国旗下方是红色背景上交叉屹立的两把金色战斧和一杆金色长矛,底部为兰色和白色相间的水波浪,长矛的把柄穿过波浪直插盾的底端。盾的翼侧是两名扶盾而立的青年,右侧是一名赤脚小伙子,左侧是一名披戴头巾的姑娘,他们都穿绿色裙服,站在象征坦桑尼亚和非洲最高峰乞力马扎罗山的高丘上,分别用一只手各扶一支拱卫着盾牌的象牙。国徽底部有一条展开的缎带,缎带上题写着铭词:“自由与团结”。
National Emblem: A native shield divided horizontally into four parts: a flashing red torch on a yellow field, the national flag, crossed axes and spear in gold on a red background and wavy blue and white lines. The shield is flanked by a barefoot youth and a barefoot
girl, wearing an organge head scarf supporting two elephant tusks, standing on a mound representing Mount Kilimanjaro. The national moto, "Uhuru Na Umoja" ("Freedom and Unity"), appears below on a white ribbon in red-gold letters.

地理位置:坦桑尼亚位于东非赤道南侧,包括大陆坦噶尼喀和附近的桑给巴尔岛、奔巴岛、马菲亚岛和拉瑟姆岛等岛屿,东西宽1,191公里,南北长1,223公里。坦桑尼亚内陆本土地处大湖(维多利亚湖、坦噶尼喀和马拉维湖)和印度洋之间,北与乌干达和肯尼亚相邻,西与刚果民主共和国(原扎伊尔)、卢旺达和布隆迪交界,南与马拉维和莫桑比克毗连,西南与赞比亚接壤。
  桑吉巴尔岛距坦桑尼亚本土最近处隔海36公里,奔巴岛位于它东北40公里处,拉瑟姆岛离其南端约58公里。
Location:
  Tanzania is located in East Africa, south of the Equator, and includes the islands of Latham, Mafia, Pemba and Zanzibar. Its area extends 1,223 km from the north to the south and 1,191 km. from the east to the west.
  Mainland Tanzania lies between the area of the great lakes- Victoria, Tanganika and Malawi-and the Indian Ocean, sharing international land boundary with eight countries. It is bounded on the north by Uganda and Kenya, on the east by the Indian Ocean, on the south by Mozambique and Malawi, on the southwest by Zambia and on the west by Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (former Zaire).
  Zanzibar is separated by a channel, 36 km. across at its narrowest point. The island of Pemba is 40 km. away to the northeast of Zanzibar while the the Latham island is 58 km. off to its south.

自然地理:
  东非大裂谷穿境而过决定了坦桑尼亚的地形。坦桑尼亚除东部沿海宽约10至40英里的低地外,全境高度在平均海拔1000英尺以上。内陆高原面积占国土总面积的绝大部分,平均海拔在1000至1400米之间。东非大裂谷从马拉维湖分成东、西两支纵贯南北,把全境分为大裂谷西支脉、中部高原、维多利亚湖盆地、大裂谷东支脉、东部高原和沿海低地和岛屿。
  坦桑尼亚山系主要沿大裂谷的东支脉展开。它的西侧有孔多阿山脉和姆布卢山脉、戈戈兰山地、姆普瓦普瓦山脉、南部高原;北部有温特高地,包括洛尔马拉辛山、恩戈罗火山口、伦盖火山等火山活动地区,这一带是世界上著名的自然保护区之一。裂谷下端的奥杜瓦伊峡谷是人类最早的发源地之一。
  高原北部屹立着海拔5895米的乞力马扎罗山的基博峰和海拔4,566米的梅鲁火山,它们是非洲的最高峰。向南是干燥的草原,汇成东部高原一部分的马萨伊草原。马赛草原东北是沟壑纵横的巴雷山和乌桑巴拉山。
  南部有利文斯敦山、基彭盖雷岭、波罗托山、鲁圭山,东再往西有乌菲帕高地和孤立的乌卢古鲁山。在松吉地区有马腾戈山地。沿海低地带两头小中间大,宽15至65公里,沿岸有许多珊瑚礁和移动沙丘。
  桑给巴尔是地势地洼的珊瑚岛平原,植被茂盛,岛上最高峰是马辛吉吉山(104米),奔巴岛最高峰是95米高的西尼昂戈尼山。
Geography:
  The topography of Tanzania is determined by the Great Rift Valley that runs through the middle of the country from north to south. Except for a coastal strip varying in width from 10 to 40 miles, the country lies at an altitude of over 1,000 feet. A plateau averaging
1,000 to 1,400 meters in height makes up the greater part of the country. As defined by the Great Rift Valley, the major physical regions are the Western Rift, the central plateau, Lake Victoria basin, the Eastern Rift and mountains, the eastern plateau and the coastal belt and islands.
  The nation's mountain systems are grouped mainly along the Eastern Rift. Its western wall comprises the Kondoa and Mbulu ranges, the Gogoland Hills, the Mpwapwa Mountians and southern higlands. The northern part of the Eastern Rift contains the Winter Highlands, including the volcanic region comprising Mount Loolmalasin, Ngorongoro Crater and Mount Lengai, one of the famous game reserves in the world. Within the lower part of the Rift lies the Olduvai Gorge where, according to the paleontologist LSB Leakey, the earliest forms of man originated.
  In the northern highlands are two of the highest peaks in Africa, Mount Kilimanjaro (5,922 meters) and Mount Meru (4,566 meters).
  Toward the south is a dry steppe merging into the Masai Steppe, a part of Eastern plateau. The northeast of the Masai Steppe is bounded by the Pare and Usambara Mountain, cut by deep, broad valleys.
  In the south are the Livingstone Mountains, the Kipengere Range, the Poroto Mountains, Mount Rugwe and further west, the Ufipa Highlands and the isolated Uluguru Mountains. In the Songea district lies another range, the Matengo Highlands.
  The coastal belt is 15 to 65 km. wide, broader in the center and narrower in the north and south. The coast contains numerous coral reefs and shifting sandbars.
  Zanzibar is a low-lying coral country covered by bush and grass plains. The highest point in the island is Masingigi Ridge (104 meters). Siniongoni, the highest point on Pemba is 95 meters.

  坦桑尼亚境内流入印度洋的河流有发源于乞力马扎罗山脉的潘加尼河,瓦米河及其支流姆空多阿河,鲁伏河,鲁菲吉河及其支流大鲁阿哈河、基隆贝罗河和姆巴兰干杜河,马坦杜河,姆布韦姆库鲁河,卢库累迪河和坦桑尼亚与莫桑比克的界河鲁伍马河。鲁菲季河有97公里的河段可以通航,流域盆地约占全国总面积的四分之一。姆可马济河流经马萨伊草原。坦桑尼亚有些河流注入湖泊。格鲁梅蒂河、卡盖拉河、莫里河和马拉河注入维多利亚湖,伦瓜河流入鲁夸湖,马拉加拉西河注入坦噶尼喀湖,松圭河与鲁胡河流入尼亚萨湖,文贝雷河、马尼翁加河及锡比蒂河流入埃亚西湖。这些河流中,只有卡盖拉河有145公里长的河段可以通航。坦桑尼亚虽然没有大河,却是尼罗河、扎伊尔河和赞比西河三条非洲大陆最大河流的发源地。
  坦桑尼亚有三大界湖。它们是世界第一大淡水湖维多利亚湖,世界第二深湖坦噶尼喀湖以及尼亚萨湖(马拉维湖)。坦桑尼亚还有纳特龙湖、埃亚西湖、马尼亚拉湖和鲁夸湖等内湖。
  The main rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Pangani, rising in the snows of Kilimanjaro, the Wami and its triibutary the Mkondoa, the Ruvu or the Kingani, the Rufiji with its tributaries the Ruaha, the Kilombero and the Mbaragandu, and farther south the
Matandu, the Mbemkuru, the Lewugu, the Lukuledi and the Ruvuma, the last forming the southern boundary with Mozambique. The basin of the Rufiji covers one-fourth of the national territory, and it is navigable for 97 km. The Mkomazi flows through the Masai Steppe. A number of rivers discharge into the country's lakes: the Grummeti, the Kagera, the Mori and the Mara into Lake victoria, the Rungwe into Lake Rukwa; the Malagarasi into Lake Tanganyika; the Songwe and the Ruhuhu into Lake Nyasa; the Wembere, the Manyonga and the Sibiti into Lake Eyasi. Of these, only the Kagera is navigable, for 145 km. Although there are no large rivers in Tanzania, the country is the divide for the three great river systems of the African continent: the Nile, the Zaire and the Zambezi.
  On the borders are three large lakes: VIctoria, the second largest freshwater lake in the world; Lake Tanganyika, the second deepest lake in the world; and Lake Nyasa. Entirely within the country are Lakes Natron, Eysai, Manyara and Rukwa.

气候:
  坦桑尼亚属热带赤道气候,大致可分为四个气候不同的地区:从达累斯萨拉姆到肯尼亚的边界的沿海地区,维多利亚湖地区,内陆高原地区和南部沿海地带。坦桑尼亚的气温总体上要比同纬度的其他国家的气温低,日平均温度摄氏22.2度至32.2度。北部有两个雨季,即3月到5月和11月到12月。其它地区只有一个雨季,即11月到4月或5月。全年降雨量不大,有一半地区年降雨量只有76厘米,尼亚萨湖地区降雨最多,年降雨量达254厘米,中部高原和马赛草原降雨最少,年降雨量只有51厘米。
  北部沿海地区年降雨量127至152厘米,平均气温摄氏22至30度,每年2月最炎热。
  维多利亚湖地区每年11月至12月和4月至6月中旬为雨季,10月到2月或3月为热季,1月和7月至9月为凉季,热季平均气温摄氏28度,凉季平均气温摄氏17度,东侧年降雨量77—111,西侧地区年降雨量223至228厘米。
  内陆高原地区一年只有一个雨季,尼亚萨湖地区降水量最大,每年达254厘米,其余地方只有77至101厘米;高原上气侯凉爽宜人,凉季平均气温只摄氏15度,热季仅28度。
  海岛是更典型的热带气候,雨量和气温都高于内陆地区;4月至5月和11月到12月为雨季,12月至3月为热季,6月至10月为凉季。奔巴岛年降雨量约234厘米,马菲亚岛和桑给巴尔岛年降雨量152至234厘米。
  坦桑尼亚的气侯主要受11月至3月的东南信风和4月至10月的东北信风影响。
Weather:
  Tanzania has a tropical equatorial climate modified by altitude. Broadly, the country is divided into three climatic zones: the northern coastal belt, from Dar es Salaam to the Kenya border; the lake region around Lake victoria, interior plateau and the southern coastal belt. In general, the nationawide temperatures are lower than those of countries in similar latitudes. The mean daily maximums range between 22.2 degrees centigrade and 32.2 degrees centigrade. The North has two distinct wet seasons, the longer one from March to May and the shorter one from November to December. The rest of the country has only one rainy season, from November to April or May. The overall rainfall is not great. About half the country receives 76 cm annually, the Maximum being recorded at Lake Nyasa (254 cm) and
the minimum in parts of the central plateau and the Masai Steppe (51 cm).
  The northern coastal belt has two wet seasons and two dry seasons. The long rains occur from March to May and the short rains from November to December, alternating with dry seasons from June to October and January to February. Annual average rainfall is 127 to 152 cm. The temparature ranges from 22 degrees centigrade to 30 degrees while February is the hottest month.
  The lake region also has two wet seasons and two periods each of warm and cool weather. The rainy seasons are from November to December and from April to mid-June, while the warm periods are in October and February or March, and cool seasons are in January and from July to September. Temperature range from 28 degrees centigrade during the warm season to 17 degrees during the cool season. Area to the east receive 77 to 101cm, while those to the west receive from 203 to 228 cm of rainfall.
  The interior plateau receives rain during only one season. Precipitation is highest in the Lake Nyasa region, which receives 254 cm annually. The rest of the plateau receive from 77 to 101 cm. The climate is healthy and bracing in the highland areas. The temperature
varies from 15 degrees centigrade in the cool season to 28 degrees in the hot season.
  The off-shore islands have a more tropical climate with higher rainfall and temeratures than the mainland, but the heat is tempered by sea breezes. There are three well-defined seasons: the rainy season from April to May and from November to December, the hot season from December to March and the cool season from June to October. Pemba receives 234 cm of rainfall, while Mafia and Zanzibar receive from 152 to 234 cm.
  The prevailing winds are the southeast trade winds from November to March and the northeast trade winds from April through October.

面 积:945087平方公里(其中坦桑大陆部分为942430平方公里,桑给巴尔部分为2657平方公里)
  土地利用—耕地6%,永久牧场40%,森林和林地47%,其它7%;人均耕地0.4英亩;海岸线长-1424公里;陆界线长-3843公里。
Area: 945,087 sq. km.(the mainland-942,430 sq. km., Zanzibar and Pemba-2,657 sq. km.)
  Land use-6% cropland, 40% permanent pasture, 47% forests and woodland, 7% other; arable land per capita-0.4 acre; coastline-1,424 km.; land borders-3,843 km.

人 口:3230万(1998年)
  密度每平方公里33人(1997年),城市人口占23.6%,年增长率2.8%(2000);平均寿命51.5岁,男50.2岁,女52.9岁。
Population: 32.3 m. (1998)
  density-33 inhabs. per sq. km. (1997); urban population - 23.6% ; growth rate per year - 3.4%; average life expectancy - 51.5 years (1995-2000), male - 50.2 years, female - 52.9 years (1995-2000)

首 都:达累斯萨拉姆,人口-180万(1996)(新首都多多马尚在建设之中,人口14·38万[1992])
Capital: Dar es Salaam; population- 1,800,000 (1996) (new capiatal Dodoma has been under construction.)

语 言:斯瓦希里语为国语,英语与斯瓦希里语一同作为官方语言。
  有100多种非洲语言在坦桑尼亚流行。他们主要属于班图、尼罗—含米特、尼罗特和科伊桑语。班图语属于刚果—科尔多凡语族,尼罗—含米特和尼罗特语属于尼罗—撒哈拉语族,科伊桑语属于非洲南部和西南部布须曼人和霍屯督人也使用的科伊桑语族。这些语言互不相通,同一语言的各种方言则能相通。
  斯瓦希里语是国语,既是官方语言也是不同民族间交往的混合语言。斯瓦希里语的来源和结构基本上是班图语,但词汇是从其它语言,特别是阿拉伯语和英语中吸收过来的。桑给巴尔人讲的斯瓦希里语被称为琼古加语。
  英语也享有官方语言的地位,不过只在受过教育的知识阶层流行。
  亚洲人社团中也流行印地语、旁遮普语和乌尔都语。大多数亚洲人也讲英语和斯瓦希里语。
Languages: More than 100 African languages are spoken in the country. These languages belong to four groups: Bantu, Nilo-Hamitic, Nilotic and Khoisan. Bantu languages belong to the Congo-Kordofanian language family, the Nilo-Hamitic and Nilotic languages to the Nilo-Saharan languages family, and the Khoisan languages to the Khoisan languages family that includes languages spoken by the Bushman and Hottentot peoples of southern and southwestern Africa. All these languages are mutually unintelligible, but dialects within the same language may be intelligible to a degree.
  The official language and the lingua francais Swahili (also known as Kiswahili), spoken as a mother tongue by a large number of inhabitants. Swahili is basically a Bantu language in structure and origin, but its vocabulary is drawn from a variety of sources, particularly Arabic and English. The form of Swahili spoken in Zanzibar is known as Kiunguja. English enjoys the status of a co-official language, but its use is restricted to the educated elite.
  Within the Aisan community a number of languages are spoken, including Hindi, Punjabi, and Urdu. Most Asians also speak English and Swahili.

民 族:非洲人占99%,其它1%(包括亚洲人,欧洲人和阿拉伯人等)。
  坦桑尼亚是世界上民族成分最复杂的国家之一.占人口总数99%的非洲人分属130多个民族和部落,各民族和部落都有自己的身体特征、社会特点和语言。这些民族和部落大致可归属5个种族:班图人、尼罗人、尼罗—含米特人、科伊桑人和包括伊拉库族、戈罗瓦族、布龙格族在内的伊拉库人。95%的坦桑尼亚人属于含米特人和黑人混血的班图人。班图人中,有的民族只有几千人,而苏库马族却有上百万人,尼亚姆韦齐族、哈族、哈亚族和查加族也有数十万人。唯一属于尼罗特人的部落是卢奥人。尼罗—含米特人主要聚居在马萨伊和塔托格。坦桑尼亚中北部地区散居着布须曼人一样的小部落。
  居民民族成分也很复杂。非洲人居民中有当地土著民族瓦土姆巴图族和瓦奔巴族,还有属于大陆50多个民族的居民。设拉子族居民是非洲人种的民族,他们认为自己是波斯设拉子移民的后裔。
  外来民族主要是来自印度次大陆的亚洲人、阿拉伯人和欧洲人。
Ethnic Composition:
  Tanzania is one of the least homogeneous nations in the world. African, who form 99% of the population are divided into over 130 groups, each with its own physical and social characteristics and languages. These tribes have broadly cateforized into five ethnic families: Bantu, Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Khoisan and the unclassified Iraqw comprising Iraqw, Gorowa, Burungi, and others. About 95% of Tanzanians are classified as Bantu, a blend of hamitic and negroid stocks. Bantu tribes range in membership from a few thousands to the Sukuma, which numbers over one million. There are Nyamwezi, Ha, Makonde, Gogo, Haya, Chagga and Hehe each number more than hundreds of thousands. The only tribe of Nilotic origin is the Luo. The Nilo-Hamites are generally grouped into two clusters: the Masai and the Tatog. Scattered throughout the north-central region of the country are small groups of Bushmen-like people.
  The population of the offshore islands is equally heterogeneous. The African population is composed of the Indigenous Watumbatu, Wahadimu, Wapemba and others belonging to 50 mainland tribes. Non-Africans belong primarily to a group called the Shirazi who consider themselves descendants of imigrants from Shiraz in Persia, although they show evidence of mixed descent.
  Ethnic aliens belong to one of three groups: Asians from the Indian subcontinent, Arabs and europeans.

宗 教:45%居民信奉基督教,35%信奉伊斯兰教,20%信奉原始拜物教。桑给尔居民绝大部分信伊斯兰教。
Religion: 45% Christian, 35% Moslem, 20% indigenous beliefs; Zanzibar's population is almost 100%moslem.

货  币:1坦桑尼亚先令=100分;1美元=800坦桑尼亚先令(2001年2月)
Currency: 1 Tanzanian shilling=100 cents; 1 US dollar=800 Tanzanian shilling (Feb.2001)

节 日(2001年):桑给巴尔革命日(1月12日)、坦桑尼亚革命党日(2月5日)、宰牲节(3月6日)、复活节(4月13-16日)、联合日(4月26日)、国际劳动节(5月1日)、穆罕默德诞生日(6月4日)、农民日(7月7日)、独立日(12月9日)、开斋节(12月17日)、圣诞节(12月25日)。
Holidays (2001): 12 Jan. (Zanzibar Revolution Day), 5 Feb. (Chama Cha Mapinduzi[Revolutionary Party of Tanzania] Day), 6 Mar. (Feast of the Sacrifice), 13-16 Apr. (Easter), 26 Apr. (Union Day), 1 May (International Labour Day), 4 June (Birth of the Prophet), 7 July (Saba Saba Peasants' Day), 9 Dec. (Independence Day), 17 Dec. (Id al-Fitr, end of Ramadan), 25 Dec. (Christmas).

行政区划:全国划分为25个省
  省(首府):阿鲁沙(阿鲁沙)、海岸(达累斯萨拉姆)、达累斯萨拉姆(达累斯萨拉姆)、多多马(多多马)、伊林加(伊林加)、卡盖拉(布科巴)、基戈马(基戈马)、乞力马扎罗(莫希)、林迪(林迪)、马拉(穆索马)、姆贝亚(姆贝亚)、莫罗戈罗(莫罗戈罗)、姆特瓦拉(姆特瓦拉)、姆万扎(姆万扎)、北奔巴(韦特)、南奔巴(查克查克)、普瓦尼(达累斯萨拉姆)、鲁夸(松巴万加)、鲁伍马(松盖阿)、希尼安加(希尼安加)、辛吉达(辛吉达)、塔波拉(塔波拉)、坦噶(坦噶)、北桑给巴尔(姆科科托尼)、桑给巴尔南部和中部(科阿尼)、西桑给巴尔(桑给巴尔)、卡盖拉(布科巴)。
Administrative Districts: 25 Regions.
  Regions(Capital): Arusha (Arusha), Coast (Dar es Salaam), Dar es Salaam () Dodoma (Dodoma), Iringa (Iringa), Kagera (Bukoba), Kigoma(Kigoma), Kilimanjaro(Moshi), Lindi(Lindi), Mara (Musoma), Mbeya (Mbeya), Morogoro(Morogoro), Mtwara(Mtwara), Mwanza(Mwanza), Pemba North (Wete), Pemba South (Chake Chake), Pwani(Dar es Salaam), Rukwa (Sumbawang), Ruvuma (Songea), Shinyanga(Shinyanga), Singida(Singida), Tabora (Tabora), Tanga(Tanga), Zanzibar North (Mkokotoni), Zanzibar South and Central (Koani), Zanzibar West (Zanzibar), Kagera (Bukoba)

主要城市:达累斯萨拉姆、姆万扎、坦噶、阿鲁沙。
Major Cities: Dar es Salaam, Mwanza, Tanga, Arusha.
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