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俄罗斯
发布时间:2006-02-07   文章来源:秘书处
 概 况:
General:

国 名:俄罗斯联邦、俄罗斯(1991年12月25日前称俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国)
Official Name: Russian Federation, Russia (until December 25, 1991, officially known as the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic).

国 旗:长方形三色旗,自上至下由同样大小的白、兰、红三个平行长方形条块组成,旗面长与宽的比例为3:2。
National Flag: The national flag of the Russian Federation is rectangular, a sheet of fabric of three equalized horizontal stripes: the upper one of white color, the middle one of azure color and the lower one of scarlet color. the flag's ratio of width to length is 2: 3.

国 徽:饰有双头鹰的盾。一只金色双头鹰镶嵌在红色盾面上,鹰头上装饰着彼得大帝的三顶皇冠,2顶小皇冠戴在两个鹰头上,一顶大皇冠立于两顶小皇冠之间;鹰爪持象征皇权的金色权杖和金球。金鹰胸脯是莫斯科的历史盾徽,红色盾面上是一勇士骑在白马上执剑刺龙的图案。
National Emblem: The state emblem of the Russian Federation is a black double-headed eagle on a golden shield, crowned with two crowns above which there is a third, larger crown of the same type. The state eagle holds a golden scepter and a golden orb. On its chest there is the historical shield emblem of Moscow, which depicts a horseman piercing a dragon with his spear.

国 歌:《牢不可破的联盟》(亚历山大·亚历山德罗夫作曲、谢尔盖·米哈尔科夫作词)

自然地理:俄罗斯联邦是世界上领土面积最大的国家,地跨欧洲东部和亚洲北部,北临北冰洋,东濒日本海、鄂霍茨克海和太平洋,西连白俄罗斯和乌克兰,西北与挪威、芬兰、爱沙尼亚和拉脱维亚接壤,欧洲部分领土南与黑海、格鲁吉亚、阿塞巴疆、里海和哈萨克斯坦相连,其东部西伯利亚和远东地区南毗蒙古、中国和朝鲜民主主义人民共和国。俄罗斯联邦的加里宁地区是1945年前东普鲁士的柯尼斯堡,它南接波兰,北连立陶宛,西濒波罗的海,东隔白俄罗斯和立陶宛与俄罗斯本土相望。
Location: The Federation of Russia, the largest country in the world, occupies a large portion of the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. It is bounded by Norway, Finland, Estonia and Latvia to the north-west and by Belarus and Ukraine to the West.The southern borders of Russia are with the Black Sea, Georgia, Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea and Kazakstan. Its Siberian and Far Eastern regions border China, Mogolia and athe Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the south .Its Eastern coastline is on the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Pacific Ocean and the Barents Sea. The northern coastline is on the Arctic Ocean. The region around Kaliningrad, (an area that is formerly Konigsberg in East Prussia and has became a part of the Russian Federation since 1945), is separated from the rest of Russia by Lithuania and Belarus. The region has southern frontier with Poland , norhtern and eastern borders with Lithuania and a coastline on othe Baltic Sea.

地 形:叶尼塞河把俄罗斯的地形分为大体相等的两半,西边为平原低地,东边为高原山地。在西部地区,乌拉尔山脉的西侧为东欧平原,东侧为西西伯利亚平原和中西伯利亚高原。贝加尔湖以东地区,包括远东地区,均为山地,有雅布洛诺夫、斯塔诺夫、朱格朱尔、上扬斯克、切尔斯基和科里雅克等山脉。
  境内沼泽广布,河流湖泊众多,有许多世界著名的江湖。俄罗斯的河流都互不相通,大多不能通航入海。流入里海的伏尔加河全长3690公里,是俄罗斯最大河流,也是欧洲第一长河。顿河流淌1870英里,注入亚速海,河口一年之内有125天封冻不能通航。第聂伯河全长2200英里,蜿蜒向南流向黑海,可通航河段仅有1273英里。北部的北德维纳河向北流经744英里注入白海,全年封冻期竟长达190天。西伯利亚地区的河流都向北流入北冰洋,主要有鄂毕河(3650英里)、叶尼塞河(3487英里)、勒拿河(4400英里)和俄罗斯与中国的界河阿穆尔河(黑龙江,4350英里)。俄罗斯与哈萨克斯坦和伊朗等国相会的里海,面积371,000平方公里,是全球第一大湖,也是世界最大的咸水湖。西伯利亚地区的贝加尔湖水深5700英尺,是世界第一深湖。拉多加湖面积6900平方英里,是欧洲第一大湖。
  Russia falls nearly into two sections: a lowland west of the Yenisey river and uplands to the east. The lowland is divided by the Ural Mountain into the East European Plain to the west and the West Siberian Plain and Central Siberian Plateau to the east. The east of Lake Baycal , including the Far Eastern region, is a complex series of uplands, including the Yablonovy, Stanovy, Dzhugdzhur, Verkhoyansk, Chersky and Koryak mountain ranges.
  Russia contains many of the world's great rivers. They are widely spaced, most of them flow in the wrong direction and none provides free access to the open ocean. The Volga, Russia's main river and the largest and longest in Europe flows over 2300 miles into the land-locked Caspian Sea. The Don (1160 miles in length), emptying into the Sea of Azov, and the Dnieper (1600 miles), emptying into the Black Sea, flow south, the former is closed by ice for 125 days near its mouth and the latter is only navigable for 1273 miles. The northern Dvina (1350 miles), which flows into the White Sea at Archangel (Arkhangelsk), is ice-blocked for 190 days. The four great Siberian rivers are the Ob (3300 miles, with the Irtysh as main tributary), the Yenisey (2550 miles, with the Angara as its main tributary),
the Lena (2720 miles) and the Amur (Heilongjiang, 2740 miles) whch is the boundary river between Russia and China.
  The Caspian Sea, where Russia, Iran , Kazakhstan and a number of other countries meet, has an area of 371000 square kilometers and is known as the biggest lake in the world. Among the plenty of lakes in Russia, Lake Baykal, 5700 feet in depth, is the deepest in the world
and Lake Ladoga, 6900 square miles in area, is the largest within the boundaries of Europe.

气 侯:俄罗斯联邦全境多属温带和亚寒带大陆性气侯,仅太平洋沿岸地区属季风气侯。北部和西伯利亚地区气侯寒冷,南部地区气侯温和,温差极大。泰加森林地区和俄罗斯的大部分地区冬季漫长严寒,夏季短促凉爽,春秋季节甚短。冻土带的夏季只有一、二个月,每年有8-10个月雪花纷飞。莫斯科7月平均温度摄
氏19度,而1月平均温度摄氏零下9度。雅库特地区是俄罗斯最寒冷的地区,最低温度达摄氏零下70.6度。西伯利亚北部的上扬斯克—奥伊米亚康地区1月平均气温只摄氏零下68度,是世界上有人居住地区中平均温度最低的地方。俄罗斯大片土地位于北极圈内,一半的土地有半年以上覆盖着白雪,领土面积的一半有冻土层。在俄罗斯许多地方,能解冻的土层厚度只有几英尺。俄罗斯的大多数湖泊、河流和近海水域封冻期很长。
  俄罗斯降水较少,但全年分布比较均匀。西部东欧平原地区年降雨量在25-30英寸左右,东西伯利亚则在10英寸以下。莫斯科年降雨量约21英寸。
  Most of Russia has a continental climate with relative low precipitation exept the Pacific region which has a monsoon climate. Most of Russia in general, the taiga in particular, has long, severe winters, short summers, and exteremely short springs and autumns. The tundra has long winters and summers that last only 1 or 2 months and receives from 8 to 12 months of snow or rain. The country's climate is extremely varied, ranging from extreme Arctic conditions in northern areas and much of Siberia to generally temparate weather in the south.The average temparature in Moscow in July is 19 degrees centigrade while the average for January is minus nine degrees centigrade. The lowest temparatures are found in the Yakut, where they drop to as low as minus 70.6 degrees centigrade. The Verkhoyansk-Oymyakon area of the northern Siberia is found with the January average temparature at minus 68 degrees centigrade which is the lowest temparatures of any of the world's inhabited regions. A larger part of russia lies north of the Arctic Circle. Snow covers more than half the country six months a year. Almost half the country has permafrost (permanently frozen soil) beneath the ground surface. In many areas of Russia, the soil never thaws more than a few feet. Most of Russia's coastal waters, lakes and rivers are frozen much of the year.
  In Russia, precipitation is low but falls thoughout the year and varies from 25-30 inches a year in the west to less than 10 inches in eastern Siberia. Moscow has 21 inches precipitation a year.

面 积:1707.5万平方公里
  耕地占7.7%,草原占4.6%,森林和林地占45.6%,其它占42.1%,可耕地占总面积的11%,人均耕地3.1英亩;
  海岸线长23398英里,陆界长12514英里。
Area: 17,075,400 square kilometers
  7.7% crop land, 4.6% permanent pasture, 45.6% forest and woodland, 42.1% others, 11% arable land, arable land per capita: 3.1 acres,
   Coast Line: 23398 miles, Land Borders: 12514 miles.

人 口:1.455亿(2000年1月1日);1.442亿(2001年1月1日)
  人口密度每平方英里22人(2000);城市人口占73.9%,农村人口占26.1%;年人口增长率:负0.2%(2000),出生率:0.95%,死亡率1.55%;平均寿命:64.5岁,(男58岁,女71岁)(2001)
Population: 145.5 m. (jan.1 2000); 144.2 m. (jan.1, 2001)
  population density: 22 per square mile (2000), uaban population: 73.9%, rural population: 26.1%, annual population growth rate:minus 0.2% (2000); population birth rate: 0.95% (1994), death rate: 1.55%, average life expectancy: 64.5 years (male: 58 years, female: 71 years)(2001).

首 都:莫斯科,人口867.6万(1997)。
Capital: Moscow, population: 8,676,000 (1997).

时 间:比北京时间晚5小时。
Time: five hours later than Beijing time.

官方语言:俄语
Language: Russian

民 族:85%俄罗斯人,3.9%鞑靼人,2.4%乌克兰人,1.2%楚瓦什人,1.0%巴什基尔人,0.7%白俄罗斯人,0.7%莫尔多瓦人,0.6%德意志人,4.5%犹太人和其他民族;
Ethnic Composition: Russian 85%, Tatar 3.9%, Ukrainian 2.4%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 1.0%,Belorussian 0.7%, Mordovian 0.7%, German 0.6%, Jews and others 4.5%.

宗 教:绝大部分为俄罗斯正教,也有少数天主教、耶酥教、伊斯兰教、犹太教的信徒。
Religion: Predominantly Russian Orthodox, There are also Catholic, Protestant, Moslem, Old Believer, and Jewish minorities.

货 币:1卢布=100戈比,1美元=28.41卢布(2000年3月17日)。
  汇 率:
  1991年8月:    1美元=161卢布
  1992年1月     1美元=586卢布
  1993年1月29日:  1美元=575卢布
  1994年1月18日:  1美元=1504卢布
  1995年2月21日:  1美元=4384卢布
  1996年2月22日:  1美元=4383卢布
  1997年3月27日:  1美元=5729卢布
  1998年12月4日:  1美元=21.2卢布
  1999年3月31日:  1美元=24.2卢布
  1994年8月4日,叶利钦总统宣布,从1998年1月1日起,卢布币值将提高1000倍,面额缩小为目前的千分之一。新的硬币和纸币将从1998年1月起流通,但旧卢布将同时使用之1998年12月31日。在2002年前的四年间,俄所有银行都可接收旧卢布。
Currency:
  1 ruble (Rub) = 100 kopecks. 1 U.S. dollar = Rub 28.41 (Mar.17,2000)

节 日(2001年):新年(1月1-2日)、圣诞节(1月7日)、国际妇女节(3月8日)、复活节(4月16日)、春天和劳动节(5月1-2日)、反法西斯战争胜利日(5月9日)、俄罗斯日(6月12日)、打败日本日(9月3日)、宪法日(12月12日)、新年除夕(12月31日)。
Holidays(2001):January 1-2( New Year's Day), January 7 (Christmas), March 8 (International Women's Day), April 16 (Orthodosx Easter), May 1-2 (Spring and Labor Day), May 9 (Victory Day), June 12 (Day of Russia), September 3(Defeat of Japan Day), December 12 (Constitution
Day), December 31 ( New Year's Eve).

行政区划:(包括车臣共和国在内)共设89个联邦主体,即:21个共和国、1个自治州、6个边疆区、49个州、10个民族自治区和2个联邦直辖市。(共1846个区、1045个市和23421个村)。
Administrative Districts: 89 members (federal territorial units), consisting of 21 republics, 1 autonomous oblast (region), 10 autonomous okrugs (districts), 6 krays (territories) and 49 regions, two special administrative cities.

联邦区:
    2000年5月13日,俄罗斯总统普京签署法令,将把俄联邦89个实体(共和国、边疆区和州)按地域原则联合成7个联邦区,目的是巩固国家统一,强化总统对地方的管理体制。这7个联邦区分别为:以莫斯科为中心的中央区,以圣彼得堡为中心的西北区,以顿河罗斯托夫为中心的北高加索区,以下诺夫哥罗德为
中心的伏尔加河沿岸区,以叶卡捷琳堡为中心的乌拉尔区,以新西伯利亚城为中心的西伯利亚区和以哈巴罗夫斯克为中心的远东区。(注:括号内为各联邦区中心)

中央联邦区(莫斯科):the central federal district (moscow)

伏尔加河沿岸联邦区(下诺夫哥罗德): the volga federal district (nizhny novgorod)

西北联邦区(圣彼得堡):the northwest federal district (st. petersburg)

乌拉尔联邦区(叶卡捷琳堡):the urals federal district   (yekaterinburg)

远东区(哈巴罗夫斯克): the far eastern federal district  (khabarovsk)

西伯利亚联邦区(新西伯利亚):the siberian federal district
   (novosibirsk)

北高加索联邦区(顿河罗斯托夫):the north caucasus federal district (rostov-on-don)

共和国(首府):(带*者系根据1992年联邦条约,由州升格为共和国,车臣共和国和印古什共和国在1992年由车臣—印古什自治共和国分割而成的)
Republics (Capitals): (Those marked by * were former autonomous oblasts (regions) and were granted the status of republic under the the terms of the 1992 Federation Treaty. Until 1992 the territories of the Chechen and the Ingush republics were conbined in the Chechen-Ingush autonomous republic)

  阿迪格*(迈科普)
  Republic of Adygeya* (Maykop)

  阿尔泰*(戈尔诺-阿尔泰斯克)
  Republic of Altai* (Gorno-Altaysk)

  巴什基尔(乌法)
  Republic of Bashkortostan (Ufa)

  布里亚特(乌兰-乌德)
  Republic of Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude)

  车臣(格罗兹尼)
  Chechen Republic ^ (Groznyy)

  楚瓦什(切博克萨雷)
  Chuvash Republic (Cheboksary)

  达吉斯坦(马哈奇卡拉)
  Republic of Dagestan (Makhachkala)

  印古什(纳兹兰)
  Ingush Republic^ (Nazran)

  卡巴尔达-巴尔卡尔(纳尔奇克)
  Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Nalchik)

  卡尔梅克(埃利斯塔)
  Republic of Kalmykiya (Elista)

  卡拉恰伊-切尔斯克*(切尔斯克)
  Karachaevo-Cherkess Republic* (Cherkessk)

  卡累利阿(彼得罗扎沃斯克)
  Republic of Kareliya (Petrozavodsk)

  哈卡斯(阿巴坎)
  Republic of Khakassiya (Abakan)

  科米(瑟克特夫卡尔)
  Republic of Komi (Syktyvkar)

  马里(约什卡尔-奥拉)
  Mari Republic (Yoshkar-Ola)

  莫尔多瓦(萨兰斯克)
  Mordov Republic (Saransk)

  北奥塞梯(弗拉基高加索)
  North Ossetian Republic (Vladikavkaz)

  萨哈(又称雅库特)(雅库茨克)
  Republic of Sakha (or Yakutiya) (Yakutsk)

  鞑靼(喀山)
  Republic of Tatarstan (Kazan)

  图瓦(卡孜勒)
  Republic of Tuva (Kyzyl)

  乌德穆尔特(伊热夫斯克)
  Udmurtia Republic (Izhevsk)

州(首府):
Regions (Capitals):

  阿穆尔(布拉戈维申斯克)
  Amur (Blagoveshchensk)

  阿尔汉格尔斯克(阿尔汉格尔斯克)
  Arkhangelsk (Arkhangelsk)

  阿斯特拉罕(阿斯特拉罕)
  Astrakhan (Astrakhan)

  别尔哥罗德(别尔哥罗德)
  Belgorod (Belgorod)

  布良斯克(布良斯克)
  Briansk (Bryansk)

  车里雅宾斯克(车里雅宾斯克)
  Cheliabinsk (Cheliabinsk)

  赤塔(赤塔)
  Chita (Chita)

  伊尔库茨克(伊尔库茨克)
  Irkutsk (Irkutsk)

  伊万诺沃(伊万诺沃)
  Ivanovo (Ivanovo)

  卡卢加(卡卢加)
  Kaluga (Kaluga)

  堪察加(彼得罗巴甫洛夫斯克)
  Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky)

  克麦罗沃(克麦罗沃)
  Kemerovo (Kemerovo)

  基洛夫(基洛夫)
  Kirov (Kirov)

  科斯特罗马(科斯特罗马)
  Kostroma (Kostroma)

  库尔干(库尔干)
  Kurgan (Kurgan)

  库尔斯克(库尔斯克)
  Kursk (Kursk)

  列宁格勒(圣彼得堡)
  Leningrad (St. Petersburg)

  利佩茨克(利佩茨克)
  Lipetsk (Lipetsk)

  马加丹(马加丹)
  Magadan (Magadan)

  莫斯科(莫斯科)
  Moscow (Moscow)

  摩尔曼斯克(摩尔曼斯克)
  Murmansk (Murmansk)

  下诺夫哥罗德(下诺夫哥罗德)
  Nizhny Novgorod (Nizhny Novgorod)

  诺夫哥罗德(诺夫哥罗德)
  Novgorod (Novgorod)

  鄂木斯克(鄂木斯克)
  Omsk (Omsk)

  奥伦堡(奥伦堡)
  Orenburg (Orenburg)

  奥寥尔(奥寥尔)
  Orel (Oryol)

  奔萨(奔萨)
  Penza (Penza)

  彼尔姆(彼尔姆)
  Perm (Perm)

  普斯科夫(萨马拉)
  Pskov (Pskov)

  罗斯托夫(顿河畔罗斯托夫)
  Rostov (Rostov-na-Donu)

  萨哈林(南萨哈林斯克)
  Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk)

  萨马拉(萨马拉)
  Samara (Samara)

  萨拉托夫(萨拉托夫)
  Saratov (Saratov)

  斯摩棱斯克(斯摩棱斯克)
  Smolensk (Smolensk)

  斯维尔德洛夫斯克(叶卡捷琳堡)
  Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg)

  坦波夫(坦波夫)
  Tambov (Tambov)

  托木斯克(托木斯克)
  Tomsk (Tomsk)

  图拉(图拉)
  Tula (Tula)

  特维尔(又称加里宁)(特维尔)
  Tver (Tver)

  秋明(秋明
  Tyumen (Tyumen)

  乌里扬诺夫斯克(又称辛比尔斯克)(辛比尔斯克)
  Ulyanovsk (or Simbirsk) (Simbirsk)

  弗拉基米尔(弗拉基米尔)
  Vladimir (Vladimir)

  伏尔加格勒(伏尔加格勒)
  Volgograd (Volgograd)

  沃洛格达(沃洛格达)
  Vologda (Vologda)

  沃罗涅日(沃罗涅日)
  Voronezh (Voronezh)

  雅罗斯拉夫(雅罗斯拉夫)
  Yaroslavl (Yaloslavl)

自治州(首府):
Autonomous Region (Capitals):

  犹太州(比罗比詹)
  Yevreyskaya (Jewish) (Birobidzhan)

边疆区(首府):
Territories (Krays) (Capitals):

  阿尔泰(巴尔瑙尔)
  Altay (Barnaul)

  哈巴罗夫斯克(哈巴罗夫斯克)
  Khabarovsk (Khabarovsk)

  克拉斯诺达尔
  Krasnodarsk (Krasnodar)

  克拉斯诺亚尔斯克
  Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsk)

  滨海(符拉迪沃斯托克)
  Primorsky (Vladivostok)

  斯塔夫罗波尔
  Stavropol (Stavropol)

民族自治区(首府):
Automomous Districts (Okrugs) (Capitals):

  阿金斯科布里雅特(阿金斯科耶)
  Aginsko-Buryat (Aginskoye)

  楚克奇(阿纳德尔)
  Chukchi (or Chukotka) (Anadyr)

  埃文基(图拉)
  Evenk (Tura)

  汉蒂-曼西(汉蒂-曼西斯克)
  Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk)

  科米彼尔米亚克(库德姆卡尔)
  Komi-Permiak (Kudymkar)

  科里亚克(帕拉那)
  Koryak (Palana)

  涅涅茨(纳里扬马尔)
  Nenets (Naryan-Mar)

  太梅尔(杜金卡)
  Taymyr (Dudinka)

  乌斯特-奥尔达布里雅特(乌斯特-奥尔丁斯基)
  Ust-Orda Buryat ( Ust-Ordynsky)

  亚马尔-涅涅茨(萨列哈尔德)
  Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)

联邦直辖市:
Special Administrative Cities:

  莫斯科
  Moscow

  圣彼得堡
  St. Petersburg

恢复旧称城镇:
Renamed Cities and Towns:

  圣彼得堡(曾称列宁格勒)
  St. Petersburg (once known as Leningrad)

  下诺夫哥罗德国(曾称高尔基)
  Nizhnyi Novgorod (once known as Gorky)

  叶卡捷琳堡(曾称斯维尔德洛夫斯克)
  Yekaterinburg (once known as Sverdlovsk)

  萨马拉(曾称古比雪夫)
  Samara (once known as Kuibyshev)

  辛比尔斯克(曾称乌里扬诺夫斯克)
  Simbirsk (once known as Ulyanovsk)

  伊热夫斯克(曾称乌斯季诺夫)
  Izhevsk (once known as Ustinov)

  纳贝列日尼-切尔尼(曾称勃列日涅夫)
  Naberezhnye Chelny (once known as Brezhnev)

  维亚特卡(曾称基洛夫)
  Viyatka (once known as Kirov)

  特维尔(曾称加里宁)
  Tver (once known as Kalinin)

  弗拉季卡夫卡兹(曾称奥尔忠尼启则)
  Vladikavkaz (once known as Ordzhonikidze)

主要城市:
Major Cities (population):

  莫斯科
  Moscow (8570200),

  圣彼得堡
  St. Petersburg (4320900),

  下诺夫哥罗德
  Nizhny Novgorod (1424600),

  新西伯利亚
  Novosibirsk (1418200),

  叶卡捷琳堡
  Yekaterinburg (1347000),

  萨马拉
  Samara (1222500),

  鄂木斯克
  Omsk (1161200),

  车里雅宾斯克
  Cheliabinsk (11224500),

  喀山
  Kazan (1092300),

  乌法
  Ufa (1091800),

  彼尔姆
  Perm (1086100),

  顿河畔罗斯托夫
  Rostov-na-Donu (1023200).
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