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乌干达
发布时间:2006-02-07   文章来源:秘书处
 概 况:
General:

国 名:乌干达共和国
Official Name: the Republic of Uganda

国 旗:由黑、黄、红三色相间的六条平行宽条构成,自上而下按黑、黄、红排列。旗地中间有一白色的圆圈,圈中有一只乌干达的国鸟——皇冠鸟。
National Flag: consisting of six equal horizontal stripes of black, yellow, red, black, yellow, and red (from top to bottom); at the center there is a small white disc bearing a representation of the Balearic Crested Crane , the national bird.

国 歌:《乌干达之歌》
National Anthem: O Uganda

国 徽:两头尖状的黑色椭圆形乌干达盾,盾的右侧饰有红冠白鹤,左侧饰有白上体、黑下身的雄鹿。鹤和鹿挺立在一条河流两岸分别种有棉花和咖啡的草丘上;黑色的盾由两支交叉的银枪头勇士矛支撑着,盾面上有三个图案:上部为兰白两色相间的水平波浪图案,代表维多利亚湖;中间为光芒四射的太阳;下部为装饰得富丽堂皇的盏形鼓。国徽的最下端为一条展开的白色饰带卷轴,卷轴上的铭词为“为了上帝和我的祖国”。
National Emblem: An oval native shield pointed at both ends, flanked on one side by a red-crested white crane and a kob (a buck with a black coat and a white under body) on the other side, both standing on a grassy mound bearing cotton and coffee on either side of a
river. The black shield backed by a black silver-tipped crossed warriors' spears contains three symbols: a bright sun in the center, a white royal drum with red decorations at the bottom and horizontal blue and white wavy lines at the top representing Lake Victoria.
Beneath the device is a white scroll proclaiming the national motto: "For God and My Country."

国 鸟:皇冠鸟
National Bird: Balearic Crested Crane

地理位置:非洲东部内陆国家,横跨赤道,东邻肯尼亚,南界坦桑尼亚和卢旺达,西接刚果民主共和国,北连苏丹。
Location: a land-locked country in east-central Africa, straddling the equator, situated north and northwest of Lake Victoria and bounded by Sudan to the north, by Kenya to the east, by Tanzania to the south, by Rwanda to the southwest and by the Gongolese Democratic
Republic to the west.

自然地理:乌干达全境大部位于中非高原,多湖,平均海拔1000-1200米,有“高原水乡”之称。东非大裂谷的西支纵贯西部国境,谷底河湖众多。裂谷带与东部山地之间为宽阔的浅盆地,多沼泽。东部边界有埃尔贡山,海拔4321米;西南部与扎伊尔接壤处有鲁文佐里山脉,玛格丽塔峰海拔5109米,是全国最高峰,非洲第三高峰。境内多河湖沼泽,其面积约占全国面积的17.8%。维多利亚尼罗河与艾伯特尼罗河水量丰沛,沿河多险滩瀑布。维多利亚湖是世界第二、非洲最大的淡水湖,有42.8%在乌境内。其他还有艾伯特湖、爱德华湖、基奥加湖、乔治湖等。湖上有塞塞群岛等10多个岛屿。
Geography: The greater part of Uganda consists of a vast plateau about 4,000 feet in height and the west arm of the Great Rift Valley runs through the country's western part from north to south. The main mountain masses are the Mufumbiro and the Ruwenzori Mountains in the west and Mount Elgon in the east. The Mufumbiro in the west are volcanic highlands over 5,000 feet above sea level, extending northeastward. The range includes Mount Sabinio (3,645 meters) at the tripoint of Uganda, Rwanda and the Congolese Democratic Republic, and
Mount Mahavura (4,127meters). These highladns are separated from the Ruwenzori Mountains by a low valley containing Lake George and the Kazinga Channel. The Ruwenzori Range which run along the western border, has a number of peaks, of which the highest is Margherita (5,109 meters). The plateau's eastern boundary is marked by a number of  peaks: Mount Elgon (4,321 meters), Mount Debasien (3,068 meters), Mount Moroto (3,083 meters), Mount Morungole (2,750 meters) and Mount Zulia (2,148 meters). The Labwor Hills west of these ranges and the Imatong Mountains on the northern border are between 1,829 metwers and 2,530 meters. By contrast, the Western Rift Valley, which runs from north to south through the western half of the country, is as low as 3,000 feet below sea level on the floor of Lake Edward and Lake George and 2,000 feet on the floor of Lake Albert.
Uganda is within the upper basin of the White Nile which has its source in Lake Victoria. The Victoria Nile runs from Lake Victoria at Jinja over Owen Falls northward into Lake Kyoga. After Karuma Falls, the river follows a westward course over Murchison Falls into Lake Albert. From Lake Albert it runs as the Albert Nile, leaving Uganda at Nimule on the Sudan border. There numerous small rivers that are for the most part not navigable. These include Katonga, the Kafu, the Aswa, the Pager, the Dopeth-Okok and the Mpongo.
Uganda shares Lakes Albert, Edward and Victoria with neighbours, while Lakes Salisbury, Wamala, Kyoga, George and Kwania are entirely within Uganda. Lake Victoria is the second largest fresh water lake in the world and west of it is a group of some six lakes connected by swamps.

气 侯:大部地区属热带草原气候,从埃尔贡山到维多利亚湖沿岸,有热带森林气候的特点。年平均气温一般在22℃左右。4-5月、9-10月为雨季,其余月份为旱季。年均降水量大部地区在1000毫米以上,维多利亚湖沿岸为1500毫米,埃尔贡山南坡增至为3500毫米,最北部为700毫米。
Weather: Uganda has an equatorial climate with temperatures moderated by altitude. In most of the country the main dry season occurs between November and March. Mean annual temperatures range between 20 degrees centigrade to 22 degrees centigrade. Kampala, the capital, has a January average of 22 degrees centigrade and a July average of 20 degrees centigrade. The Lake Victoria Region has two dry seasons, from December to March and from June to July, and two wet seasons from March to May and during October and November. On the shores rain falls fro 160 to 170 days and the average rainfall is 152 centimeters to 178 centimeters. The Karamoja Region is a semi-arid plain with an intense dry season lasting from November to March and a wet season from April to October. Annual average rainfall ranges from 38 to 89 centmeters. The Western Region of the three Rift Valley lakes is one
of the hottest parts of the country with an intense dry season from December to February, a secondary dry season from September to October and from April to May. Nearer the lakes, rain falls for 80 to 100 days a year and the average annual rainfall is 76 to 101 centmeters, on the slopes of Ruwenzori it rains for 100 to 150 days a year, the average annual rainfall is 152 to 203 centmeters. The Acholi-Kyoga Region is a flat plain with many swamps. Rain falls for 140 to 170 days a year from April to October and varies between 89
to 127 centimeters. The Ankole-Bugada Region has moderate temperatures and two rainy seasons, from September to November and during April and May, for a total of 90 to 130 days of rain. Average annual rainfall is about 101 centimeters. The Mount Elgon Region has high rainfall on the southern slopes.
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