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汤加
发布时间:2006-02-07   文章来源:秘书处

 概 况
General

国 名:汤加王国
Official Name: The Kingdom of Tonga (English). Pule'anga Fakatu'io Tonga (Tonga),

国 旗:底色为红色,左上角有一白色长方形,长方形中间为一红十字。红色象征基督所洒下的鲜血,十字表示王国人民信奉基督教。

国 徽:盾徽,两面国旗分立盾后背的左右两侧,盾的上方是橄榄枝环绕的王冠。盾面正中是一颗白色的六角星和红十字;左上部为黄色背景下的三颗白色的六角星,象征组成岛国的三大主要群岛;右上部为红色背景下的一顶王冠,象征汤加的王朝;右下部为黄色背景下的三把剑表示汤加历史上三大王朝;左下部为黄色背景下的衔着橄榄枝的和平鸽,象征和平。盾上方的王冠象征汤加是一个君主立宪国家。王冠由橄榄枝环绕,两旁竖着国旗。盾的下方有一题铭绶带,绶带上写着“上帝和汤加才是我的遗产”。

地理位置:汤加群岛,又称友爱群岛,由173个岛屿组成,散落在西南太平洋上,西距斐济650公里,西南距新西兰1770公里。汤加包括瓦瓦乌、哈派和汤加塔布等3个群岛。汤加仅36岛有人居住。
Location: Tonga Archipelage, also known as the Friendly Islands, lies scattered in the southwesten Pacifi Ocean, about 650 km. east of Fiji, and about 1,770 km. northeast of New Zealand. It com-Prises 173 islands of various size, only 36 of which are permanently inhabited. The Tonga Islands are diveded into 3 main groups; Vava'u, Ha'apai and Tongatapu.

面 积:699平方公里。
土地利用一耕地占80%;永久牧场占6%;森林和林地占12%;其它占2%;人均耕地1.23英亩;海岸线长418公里。
Area: sq. 699 km.
land use-80% cropland, 6% permanent pasture; 12% forest and woodland, 2% other; arable land per capita-1.23 cares;

人 口:99000(2000)
Population: 99,000 (2000)
密度一每平方公里132.4(2000);城市人口占30.7%(1995);年增长率0.8%(1998);平均寿命-69.5岁,男性-67.5岁,女性-71.9岁(1998).
density-132.4 inhabs. per sq. km. (2000); urban pop. -30.7% (1995); growth rate-0.8% per year (1998); avg. life expectancy-69.5 years, males-67.5 years, females-71.9 years (1998).

首 都:努库阿洛法;人口-约22400(1996).
Capital: Nukualofa; Population-22,400 (1996).

时 差:比格林尼治时间早12小时;比北京时间早4小时.
Time: 12 hours earlier than GMT; 4 hours earlier than Beijing Time.

语 言:汤加语(一种直至19世纪才有文字的波利尼西亚语系语言)和英语(学校中教授的第二语言).政府出版物既用汤加语也用英语。“汤加”一词意为“南方”。
Language: Tonga, which is a Polynesian language not written down until the 19th century, and English, which is taught as a secondary language in the schools. The government publications are issued in both Tonga and English. The word "Tonga" means "south".

民 族:汤加人(属波利尼西亚人种)占98%,欧洲人后裔、其它太平洋岛屿民族和其他民族占2%。
Ethnic Compostiton:98% Polynesians; less than 2% of the pop. is of European, other Pacific islanders and other origin.

宗 教:多数居民信奉基督教,其中威莱斯教派占47.4%,罗马天主教占16.1%,汤加自由教会占13.7%,摩门教派占9.3%,汤加教会占8.9%,属基督复临安息日会占2.1%,信奉其它宗教占2.5%。
Religion: Christians of the Free Wesleyan-47.4%, Roman Catholic 16.1%, Free Church of Tonga 13.7%, Latter-day Saints 9.3%, Church of Tonga 8.9%, Seventh-day Adventist 2.1%, other 2.5%.

货 币:1潘加(汤加元)=100分;1美元=1.628汤加元(1999年12月)
Currency:I pa'anga (Tonga dollar or $T)=100 seniti; I US dollar=$T 1.628 (Dec.1999)

节 日:(2001)新年(1月1日);复活节(4月13-16日);澳新军团日(4月25日);王储生日(5月4日);独立日(6月4日);国王诞辰日(7月4日);宪法日(11月4日);图普一世日(12月4日);圣诞节和节礼日(12月25日-26日)。
Holidays (2001): Jan 1 (New Year's Day), Apr 13-16(Easter), April 25 (ANZAC Day), May 4 (HRH the Crown Prince's Birthday), June 4 (Independence Day), July 4 (HM the King's Birthday), Nov 4 (Constitution Day), Dec 4 (Tupou I Day),Dec 25-26 (Christmas Day and Boxing Day).

行政区划:
划分为5个区;
区(首府):埃瓦(奥霍努阿)、哈派(庞艾)、纽埃斯(希希福)、汤加塔布(努库阿洛法)、瓦瓦乌(内亚富)
Administrative Districts:divided into 5 Districts.
District (Capital): Eua (Ohonua), Ha'apai (Pangai), Niuas (Nihifo), Tongatapu (Nukualofa), Vava'u (Neiafu).

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